Documentation

Restore Hooks

Velero supports Restore Hooks, custom actions that can be executed during or after the restore process. There are two kinds of Restore Hooks:

  1. InitContainer Restore Hooks: These will add init containers into restored pods to perform any necessary setup before the application containers of the restored pod can start.
  2. Exec Restore Hooks: These can be used to execute custom commands or scripts in containers of a restored Kubernetes pod.

InitContainer Restore Hooks

Use an InitContainer hook to add init containers into a pod before it’s restored. You can use these init containers to run any setup needed for the pod to resume running from its backed-up state.

There are two ways to specify InitContainer restore hooks:

  1. Specifying restore hooks in annotations
  2. Specifying restore hooks in the restore spec

Specifying Restore Hooks As Pod Annotations

Below are the annotations that can be added to a pod to specify restore hooks:

  • init.hook.restore.velero.io/container-image
    • The container image for the init container to be added.
  • init.hook.restore.velero.io/container-name
    • The name for the init container that is being added.
  • init.hook.restore.velero.io/command
    • This is the ENTRYPOINT for the init container being added. This command is not executed within a shell and the container image’s ENTRYPOINT is used if this is not provided.

Example

Use the below commands to add annotations to the pods before taking a backup.

$ kubectl annotate pod -n <POD_NAMESPACE> <POD_NAME> \
    init.hook.restore.velero.io/container-name=restore-hook \
    init.hook.restore.velero.io/container-image=alpine:latest \
    init.hook.restore.velero.io/command='["/bin/ash", "-c", "date"]'

With the annotation above, Velero will add the following init container to the pod when it’s restored.

{
  "command": [
    "/bin/ash",
    "-c",
    "date"
  ],
  "image": "alpine:latest",
  "imagePullPolicy": "Always",
  "name": "restore-hook"
  ...
}

Specifying Restore Hooks In Restore Spec

Init container restore hooks can also be specified using the RestoreSpec. Please refer to the documentation on the Restore API Type for how to specify hooks in the Restore spec.

Example

Below is an example of specifying restore hooks in RestoreSpec

apiVersion: velero.io/v1
kind: Restore
metadata:
  name: r2
  namespace: velero
spec:
  backupName: b2
  excludedResources:
  ...
  includedNamespaces:
  - '*'
  hooks:
    resources:
    - name: restore-hook-1
      includedNamespaces:
      - app
      postHooks:
      - init:
          initContainers:
          - name: restore-hook-init1
            image: alpine:latest
            volumeMounts:
            - mountPath: /restores/pvc1-vm
              name: pvc1-vm
            command:
            - /bin/ash
            - -c
            - echo -n "FOOBARBAZ" >> /restores/pvc1-vm/foobarbaz
          - name: restore-hook-init2
            image: alpine:latest
            volumeMounts:
            - mountPath: /restores/pvc2-vm
              name: pvc2-vm
            command:
            - /bin/ash
            - -c
            - echo -n "DEADFEED" >> /restores/pvc2-vm/deadfeed

The hooks in the above RestoreSpec, when restored, will add two init containers to every pod in the app namespace

{
  "command": [
    "/bin/ash",
    "-c",
    "echo -n \"FOOBARBAZ\" >> /restores/pvc1-vm/foobarbaz"
  ],
  "image": "alpine:latest",
  "imagePullPolicy": "Always",
  "name": "restore-hook-init1",
  "resources": {},
  "terminationMessagePath": "/dev/termination-log",
  "terminationMessagePolicy": "File",
  "volumeMounts": [
    {
      "mountPath": "/restores/pvc1-vm",
      "name": "pvc1-vm"
    }
  ]
  ...
}

and

{
  "command": [
    "/bin/ash",
    "-c",
    "echo -n \"DEADFEED\" >> /restores/pvc2-vm/deadfeed"
  ],
  "image": "alpine:latest",
  "imagePullPolicy": "Always",
  "name": "restore-hook-init2",
  "resources": {},
  "terminationMessagePath": "/dev/termination-log",
  "terminationMessagePolicy": "File",
  "volumeMounts": [
    {
      "mountPath": "/restores/pvc2-vm",
      "name": "pvc2-vm"
    }
  ]
  ...
}

Exec Restore Hooks

Use an Exec Restore hook to execute commands in a restored pod’s containers after they start.

There are two ways to specify Exec restore hooks:

  1. Specifying exec restore hooks in annotations
  2. Specifying exec restore hooks in the restore spec

If a pod has the annotation post.hook.restore.velero.io/command then that is the only hook that will be executed in the pod. No hooks from the restore spec will be executed in that pod.

Specifying Exec Restore Hooks As Pod Annotations

Below are the annotations that can be added to a pod to specify exec restore hooks:

  • post.hook.restore.velero.io/container
    • The container name where the hook will be executed. Defaults to the first container. Optional.
  • post.hook.restore.velero.io/command
    • The command that will be executed in the container. Required.
  • post.hook.restore.velero.io/on-error
    • How to handle execution failures. Valid values are Fail and Continue. Defaults to Continue. With Continue mode, execution failures are logged only. With Fail mode, no more restore hooks will be executed in any container in any pod and the status of the Restore will be PartiallyFailed. Optional.
  • post.hook.restore.velero.io/exec-timeout
    • How long to wait once execution begins. Defaults to 30 seconds. Optional.
  • post.hook.restore.velero.io/wait-timeout
    • How long to wait for a container to become ready. This should be long enough for the container to start plus any preceding hooks in the same container to complete. The wait timeout begins when the container is restored and may require time for the image to pull and volumes to mount. If not set the restore will wait indefinitely. Optional.

Example

Use the below commands to add annotations to the pods before taking a backup.

$ kubectl annotate pod -n <POD_NAMESPACE> <POD_NAME> \
    post.hook.restore.velero.io/container=postgres \
    post.hook.restore.velero.io/command='["/bin/bash", "-c", "psql < /backup/backup.sql"]' \
    post.hook.restore.velero.io/wait-timeout=5m \
    post.hook.restore.velero.io/exec-timeout=45s \
    post.hook.restore.velero.io/on-error=Continue

Specifying Exec Restore Hooks in Restore Spec

Exec restore hooks can also be specified using the RestoreSpec. Please refer to the documentation on the Restore API Type for how to specify hooks in the Restore spec.

Multiple Exec Restore Hooks Example

Below is an example of specifying restore hooks in a RestoreSpec. When using the restore spec it is possible to specify multiple hooks for a single pod, as this example demonstrates.

All hooks applicable to a single container will be executed sequentially in that container once it starts. The ordering of hooks executed in a single container follows the order of the restore spec. In this example, the pg_isready hook is guaranteed to run before the psql hook because they both apply to the same container and the pg_isready hook is defined first.

If a pod has multiple containers with applicable hooks, all hooks for a single container will be executed before executing hooks in another container. In this example, if the postgres container starts before the sidecar container, both postgres hooks will run before the hook in the sidecar. This means the sidecar container may be running for several minutes before its hook is executed.

Velero guarantees that no two hooks for a single pod are executed in parallel, but hooks executing in different pods may run in parallel.

apiVersion: velero.io/v1
kind: Restore
metadata:
  name: r2
  namespace: velero
spec:
  backupName: b2
  excludedResources:
  ...
  includedNamespaces:
  - '*'
  hooks:
    resources:
    - name: restore-hook-1
      includedNamespaces:
      - app
      postHooks:
      - exec:
          execTimeout: 1m
          waitTimeout: 5m
          onError: Fail
          container: postgres
          command:
          - /bin/bash
          - '-c'
          - 'while ! pg_isready; do sleep 1; done'
      - exec:
          container: postgres
          waitTimeout: 6m
          execTimeout: 1m
          command:
          - /bin/bash
          - '-c'
          - 'psql < /backup/backup.sql'
      - exec:
          container: sidecar
          command:
          - /bin/bash
          - '-c'
          - 'date > /start'
Getting Started

To help you get started, see the documentation.